Qualities of your own Data Members
The characteristics of the 102,216 participants are shown in Table 1 , and in Tables S2 and S3 in the Supplementary Appendix. Mean sodium excretion was estimated to be 4.93±1.73 g, and mean potassium excretion was estimated to be 2.12±0.60 g, with higher excretion in men than in women (P<0.001 for sodium and potassium).
Activities away from Salt and you can Potassium Excretion
Seen excretion from 1 smooth early morning urine specimen and projected “usual” removal (after variations to own regression dilution prejudice) receive. Getting noticed removal, the fresh new indicate (±SD) salt removal is cuatro.93±step one.73 grams each day; 3.3% from members got salt excretion from below 2.31 grams just about every day, and you may 0.6% out of participants got salt excretion out-of lower than step one.50 grams just about every day. To possess estimated usual removal, new suggest sodium excretion are 4.90±step one.17 grams each and every day; 0.2% away from members had salt excretion off lower than 2.30 grams every single day, and none got sodium removal of less than step one.fifty grams daily.
Overall, 43.5% of the population had an estimated sodium excretion of more than 5 g per day, 45.9% between 3 and 5 g per day, and 10.6% less than 3 g per day (3.3% had an excretion <2.3 g per day, and 0.6% <1.5 g per day). After adjustment for regression dilution bias, 2.1% of participants had an estimated sodium excretion of less than 3 g per day, and only 0.2% had excretion of less than 2.3 g per day ( Figure 1A ). Overall, 7.9% of participants had an estimated potassium excretion of more than 3 g per day ( Figure 1B ).
Estimated sodium excretion was higher in rural areas than in urban areas (P<0.001), whereas estimated potassium excretion was higher in urban areas (P<0.001) (Tables S2 and S3 in the Supplementary Appendix). Per capita gross national income was inversely associated with estimated sodium excretion and positively associated with estimated potassium excretion (P<0.001 for trends). Mean estimated sodium excretion ranged from 3.78 g per day in Malaysia to 5.59 g per day in China. Mean estimated potassium excretion ranged from 1.70 g per day in South Asia (Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan) to 2.46 g per day in Canada and Europe (Poland and Sweden).
Urinary Salt Removal and you may Blood circulation pressure
Changes in hypertension get to have salt removal regarding shorter than step three grams a day, excretion out-of less than six g daily, and removal of greater than 5 grams each and every day. Individuals which have really reasonable or high sodium removal are included regarding the figure. During the China, 218 individuals that have excretion regarding lower than dos grams just about every day was as part of the class which have excretion of 2.00 so you can dos.99 g every single day, and you can 482 people which have removal of greater than eleven grams for each and every go out was indeed as part of the category which have removal of g or a lot more each day. Far away, 235 individuals having removal off 9.00 in order to nine.99 grams just about every day and you can 112 individuals having excretion out of ten grams or even more each day were included in the class with excretion out-of 8.00 to 8.99 grams each day. We bars imply 95% believe durations.
After adjusting https://datingranking.net/hinge-vs-tinder/ for covariates, we found a significant positive association between estimated sodium excretion and systolic blood pressure (P<0.001 for trend) and between estimated sodium excretion and diastolic blood pressure (P<0.001 for trend) ( Figure 2A and 2B ). For each 1-g increment in estimated sodium excretion, there was an increment of 1.46 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure (P<0.001) and an increment of 0.54 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure (P<0.001). After correcting for regression dilution bias and adjusting for covariates, we observed a steeper slope (a larger increment in blood pressure for a 1-g increment in estimated sodium excretion) for the association between estimated usual sodium excretion and blood pressure, with an increment of 2.11 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure per gram and an increment of 0.78 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure per gram (P<0.001 for both comparisons).